1- Breast tumor
A tumor is a mass of abnormal tissue. There are two types of breast tumors, those are non-cancerous or benign, and those that are cancerous which are called malignant.
When a tumor is diagnosed as benign there are some possibilities for tumor to grow, pressing on organs and causing pain or other problems. In these situations the tumor is removed, allowing pain or complications to subside and a definite pathologic diagnosis to be reached.
When a tumor is suspected to be malignant the doctor will perform a biopsy (to determine the severity or aggressiveness of the tumor) or even excise the whole tumor and surrounding tissue. Both of these procedure have to be done under general anesthesia.
2-Lymph nodes biopsy
Lymph nodes are small oval shaped organs located in different parts of body most commonly in neck, groin and armpits. They are part of immune system and may swell in response to on infection or any inflammatory disease. With taking a lymph node biopsy and sending it to a pathologic lab, your doctor can determine the cause of swelling which can be due to acute or chronic infection, immune disorder, cancer or other inflammatory disease.
An open biopsy can be performed with local anesthesia or under general anesthesia and treatment plans should be made upon the lab results by your doctor.
Endoscopy is a nonsurgical procedure used to examine a person’s digestive tract. Using an endoscope, a flexible tube with a light camera attached to it, your doctor can view your digestive tract on a monitor. During an upper endoscopy an endoscope is easily passed through the mouth and brings esophagus, stomach and upper part of small intestine to the doctor’s view.
Similarly during colonoscopy, endoscope can be passed into the large intestine through the rectum.
Both of these procedures should be done under kinds of sedation. The sedative which is administered via an injection into the vein under supervision of an anesthesiologist, produces relaxation and light sleep
Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder due to gallstones causing pain or infection. The surgical procedure can be done under either laparoscopic cholecystectomy (instruments are placed in the abdomen through small incisions) or open procedure (through an incision on the right side under the rib cage). The procedure must be performed in operating room under general anesthesia and the patient will go home in 1 to 2 days after surgery if there is no complications.
Thyroidectomy is the removal of part or all of the thyroid gland. Thyroidectomy is used to treat thyroid disorders such as goiter (non cancerous enlargement of thyroid), hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or even cancer. Removal of thyroid could be partial or total and in total case the thyroid hormones have to be replaced to maintain natural function of the gland.
The procedure is typically performed during general anesthesia, and may takes a few hours. Thyroidectomy is generally a safe procedure but as with any surgery it carries a risk of complications. Like bleeding, infection, airway obstruction, hoarseness and damage to parathyroid glands.
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